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Price of Calcitriol
Calcitriol 0.25 mcg capsule
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Calcitriol volume of distribution
What is Calcitriol
Calcitriol or 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol (abbreviated 1,25-(OH) sub 2 /sub -D3) is the active form of vitamin D found in the body (vitamin D3). Calcitriol is marketed under various trade names including Rocaltrol (Roche), Calcijex (Abbott) and Decostriol (Mibe, Jesalis). It is produced in the kidneys via 25-hydroxyvitamin D-1 alpha;-hydroxylase by conversion from 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (calcidiol). This is stimulated by a decrease in serum calcium, phosphate (PO sub 4 /sub sup 3. /sup ) and parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels. It regulates calcium levels by increasing the absorption of calcium and phosphate from the gastrointestinal tract, increasing calcium and phosphate reabsorption in the kidneys and inhibiting the release of PTH. Calcitriol is also commonly used as a medication in the treatment of hypocalcemia and osteoporosis.
Calcitriol mechanism of action
The mechanism of action of calcitriol in the treatment of psoriasis is accounted for by their antiproliferative activity for keratinocytes and their stimulation of epidermal cell differentiation. The anticarcinogenic activity of the active form of Calcitriol appears to be correlated with cellular vitamin D receptor (VDR) levels. Vitamin D receptors belong to the superfamily of steroid-hormone zinc-finger receptors. VDRs selectively bind 1,25-(OH) sub 2 /sub -D3 and retinoic acid X receptor (RXR) to form a heterodimeric complex that interacts with specific DNA sequences known as vitamin D-responsive elements. VDRs are ligand-activated transcription factors. The receptors activate or repress the transcription of target genes upon binding their respective ligands. It is thought that the anticarcinogenic effect of Calcitriol is mediated via VDRs in cancer cells. The immunomodulatory activity of calcitriol is thought to be mediated by vitamin D receptors (VDRs) which are expressed constitutively in monocytes but induced upon activation of T and B lymphocytes. 1,25-(OH) sub 2 /sub -D3 has also been found to enhance the activity of some vitamin D-receptor positive immune cells and to enhance the sensitivity of certain target cells to various cytokines secreted by immune cells.
Dosage forms of Calcitriol
|Injection, solution||intravenous||1 ug/mL|
Abb Vie Inc.
Humans and other mammals
Indication of Calcitriol
Used to treat vitamin D deficiency or insufficiency, refractory rickets (vitamin D resistant rickets), familial hypophosphatemia and hypoparathyroidism, and in the management of hypocalcemia and renal osteodystrophy in patients with chronic renal failure undergoing dialysis. Also used in conjunction with calcium in the management and prevention of primary or corticosteroid-induced osteoporosis.
Toxicity of Calcitriol
LD sub 50 /sub (oral, rat) = 620 mu;g/kg; LD sub 50 /sub (intraperitoneal, rat) 5 mg/kg; Overdose evident in elevated blood calcium levels causing symptoms of anorexia, nausea and vomiting, polyuria, polydipsia, weakness, pruritus, and nervousness, potentially with irreversible calcification of soft tissue in the kidney and liver.
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