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Price of Citalopram
Celexa 20 mg Tablet
* price without discount in nearest pharmacy. Price may vary.
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Citalopram volume of distribution
* 12 L/kg
Citalopram is highly lipophilic and likely widely distributed throughout the body, including the blood-brain-barrier. However, its metabolite, demethylcitalopram does not cross the barrier well.
What is Citalopram
Citalopram hydrobromide belongs to a class of antidepressant agents known as selective serotonin-reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). Citalopram and its N-demethylated metabolites exist as a racemic mixture but its effects are largely due to the S-enantiomer, S-citalopram and S-demthylcitalopram. Despite distinct structural differences between compounds in this class, SSRIs possess similar pharmacological activity. As with other antidepressant agents, several weeks of therapy may be required before a clinical effect is seen. SSRIs are potent inhibitors of neuronal serotonin reuptake. They have little to no effect on norepinephrine or dopamine reuptake and do not antagonize alpha;- or beta;-adrenergic, dopamine D sub 2 /sub or histamine H sub 1 /sub receptors. During acute use, SSRIs block serotonin reuptake and increase serotonin stimulation of somatodendritic 5-HT sub 1A /sub and terminal autoreceptors. Chronic use leads to desensitization of somatodendritic 5-HT sub 1A /sub and terminal autoreceptors. The overall clinical effect of increased mood and decreased anxiety is thought to be due to adaptive changes in neuronal function that leads to enhanced serotonergic neurotransmission. Side effects include dry mouth, nausea, dizziness, drowsiness, sexual dysfunction and headache. Side effects generally occur within the first two weeks of therapy and are usually less severe and frequent than those observed with tricyclic antidepressants. Citalopram is approved for treatment of depression. Unlabeled indications include mild dementia-associated agitation in nonpsychotic patients, smoking cessation, ethanol abuse, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) in children, and diabetic neuropathy. Citalopram has the fewest drug-drug interactions of the SSRIs.
Citalopram mechanism of action
The antidepressant, antiobsessive-compulsive, and antibulimic actions of citalopram are presumed to be linked to its inhibition of CNS neuronal uptake of serotonin. Citalopram blocks the reuptake of serotonin at the serotonin reuptake pump of the neuronal membrane, enhancing the actions of serotonin on 5HT sub 1A /sub autoreceptors. SSRIs bind with significantly less affinity to histamine, acetylcholine, and norepinephrine receptors than tricyclic antidepressant drugs.
Dosage forms of Citalopram
Abbott Laboratories, Limited
Humans and other mammals
Indication of Citalopram
For the treatment of depression. Unlabeled indications include: treatment of mild dementia-associated agitation in nonpsychotic patients, smoking cessation, ethanol abuse, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) in children, and diabetic neuropathy.
Toxicity of Citalopram
Symptoms most often accompanying citalopram overdose, alone or in combination with other drugs and/or alcohol, included dizziness, sweating, nausea, vomiting, tremor, somnolence, and sinus tachycardia. In more rare cases, observed symptoms included amnesia, confusion, coma, convulsions, hyperventilation, cyanosis, rhabdomyolysis, and ECG changes (including QTc prolongation, nodal rhythm, ventricular arrhythmia, and very rare cases of torsade de pointes). Acute renal failure has been very rarely reported accompanying overdose. Withdrawal symptoms include flu-like symptoms, insomnia, nausea, imbalance, sensory changes and hyperactivity.
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