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Price of Gemcitabine
Gemzar 200 mg Solution Vial
* price without discount in nearest pharmacy. Price may vary.
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Gemcitabine volume of distribution
* 50 L/m^2 (infusions lasting 70 minutes)
* 370 L/m^2 (long infusions)
What is Gemcitabine
Gemcitabine is a nucleoside analog used as chemotherapy. It is marketed as Gemzar by Eli Lilly and Company. As with fluorouracil and other analogues of pyrimidines, the drug replaces one of the building blocks of nucleic acids, in this case cytidine, during DNA replication. The process arrests tumor growth, as new nucleosides cannot be attached to the “faulty” nucleoside, resulting in apoptosis (cellular “suicide”).
Gemcitabine is used in various carcinomas: non-small cell lung cancer, pancreatic cancer, bladder cancer and breast cancer. It is being investigated for use in oesophageal cancer, and is used experimentally in lymphomas and various other tumor types.
Gemcitabine mechanism of action
Gemcitabine inhibits thymidylate synthetase, leading to inhibition of DNA synthesis and cell death. Gemcitabine is a prodrug so activity occurs as a result of intracellular conversion to two active metabolites, gemcitabine diphosphate and gemcitabine triphosphate by deoxycitidine kinase. Gemcitabine diphosphate also inhibits ribonucleotide reductase, the enzyme responsible for catalyzing synthesis of deoxynucleoside triphosphates required for DNA synthesis. Finally, Gemcitabine triphosphate (diflurorodeoxycytidine triphosphate) competes with endogenous deoxynucleoside triphosphates for incorporation into DNA.
Dosage forms of Gemcitabine
|Injection, powder, lyophilized, for solution||intravenous||1 g/26.3mL|
|Injection, powder, lyophilized, for solution||intravenous||200 mg/5.26mL|
Actavis Pharma Company
Humans and other mammals
Indication of Gemcitabine
Gemcitabine is indicated for the treatment of advanced ovarian cancer that has relapsed at least 6 months after completion of platinum-based therapy; metastatic ovarian cancer; inoperable, locally advanced (Stage IIIA or IIIB), or metastatic (Stage IV) non-small cell lung cancer; and locally advanced (nonresectable Stage II or Stage III) or metastatic (Stage IV) adenocarcinoma of the pancreas.
Toxicity of Gemcitabine
Myelosuppression, paresthesias, and severe rash were the principal toxicities, LD sub50 /sub=500 mg/kg (orally in mice and rats)
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