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2018 Price of Hexaminolevulinate
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Hexaminolevulinate volume of distribution
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Total savings $4,735,080
What is Hexaminolevulinate
Hexaminolevulinate is an optical imaging drug. In solution form it is instilled intravesically for use with photodynamic blue light cystoscopy as an adjunct to white light cystoscopy. On May 28, 2010, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) granted approval for hexaminolevulinate hydrochloride (Cysview for Intravesical Solution, Photocure ASA), as an optical imaging agent for use in combination with the Karl Storz Photodynamic Diagnostic D-Light C (PDD) System for cystoscopic detection of non-muscle invasive papillary cancer of the bladder for patients suspected or known to have lesion(s) on the basis of a prior cystoscopy. Hexaminolevulinate is manufactured under the brand Cysview by Photocure ASA. In Europe, Hexaminolevulinate is marketed under the brand Hexvix
Hexaminolevulinate mechanism of action
Hexaminolevulinate is an ester of the heme precursor, aminolevulinic acid. After bladder instillation, hexaminolevulinate enters the bladder mucosa and is proposed to enter the intracellular space of mucosal cells where it is used as a precursor in the formation of the photoactive intermediate protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) and other photoactive porphyrins (PAPs). PpIX and PAPs are reported to accumulate preferentially in neoplastic cells as compared to normal urothelium, partly due to altered enzymatic activity in the neoplastic cells. After excitation with light at wavelengths between 360 and 450 nm, PpIX and other PAPs return to a lower energy level by fluorescing, which can be detected and used for cystoscopic detection of lesions. The fluorescence from tumor tissue appears bright red and demarcated, whereas the background normal tissue appears dark blue. Similar processes may occur in inflamed cells.
Dosage forms of Hexaminolevulinate
|Kit; powder for solution||intravesical||100 mg|
4-Hexyloxycarbonyl-2-oxobutylammoniumchloride Hexyl 5-amino-4-oxopentanoate hydrochloride
Humans and other mammals
Indication of Hexaminolevulinate
Hexaminolevulinate is indicated for use in the cystoscopic detection of non-muscle invasive papillary cancer of the bladder among patients suspected or known to have lesion(s) on the basis of a prior cystoscopy.
Toxicity of Hexaminolevulinate
No studies in animals have been conducted to evaluate the carcinogenic potential of hexaminolevulinate hydrochloride. Hexaminolevulinate hydrochloride was not mutagenic in in-vitro reverse mutation tests in bacteria, or in chromosome aberration tests in human peripheral blood lymphocytes, and was negative in an in-vivo micronucleus test in mice after intravenous injection of doses up to 45 mg/kg in the absence of light activation. Adequate studies have not been performed to evaluate the genetic toxicity of hexaminolevulinate hydrochloride in the presence of light activation. Adequate reproductive and developmental toxicity studies in animals have not been performed to evaluate the effects of hexaminolevulinate hydrochloride on fertility.
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