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2018 Price of Indacaterol
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Indacaterol volume of distribution
After intravenous infusion the volume of distribution (Vz) of indacaterol was 2,361 L to 2,557 L indicating an extensive distribution.
Discount Cards 16,000+
Clients Benefit 29%
Total savings $4,735,080
What is Indacaterol
Indacaterol is a novel, ultra-long-acting, rapid onset (2)-adrenoceptor agonist developed for Novartis for the once-daily management of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. It was approved by the European Medicines Agency (EMA) under the trade name Onbrez on November 30, 2009, and by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA), under the trade name Arcapta Neohaler, on July 1, 2011. Indacaterol is provided as its maleate salt form. Indacaterol is also a chiral molecule but only the pure R-enantiomer is dispensed.
Indacaterol mechanism of action
Indacaterol works by stimulating adrenergic beta-2 receptors in the smooth muscle of the airways. This causes relaxation of the muscle, thereby increasing the diameter of the airways, which become constricted in asthma and COPD. It is also long acting due to its high affinity to the lipid raft domains in the airway membrane so it slowly dissociates from the receptors. Indacaterol also has a high intrinsic efficacy so it is also very rapid acting – onset of action occurs within 5 minutes. The pharmacological effects of beta2-adrenoceptor agonist drugs, including indacaterol, are at least in part attributable to stimulation of intracellular adenyl cyclase, the enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) to cyclic-3 5 adenosine monophosphate (cyclic monophosphate). Increased cyclic AMP levels cause relaxation of bronchial smooth muscle. In vitro studies have shown that indacaterol has more than 24-fold greater agonist activity at beta2-receptors compared to beta1-receptors and 20-fold greater agonist activity compared to beta3-receptors. This selectivity profile is similar to formoterol. The clinical significance of these findings is unknown.
Dosage forms of Indacaterol
|Capsule||oral; respiratory (inhalation)||75 ug/1|
|Inhalation powder, hard capsule||Inhalation use||150 g|
5-(2-(5,6-Diethylindan-2-ylamino)-1-hydroxyethyl)-8-hydroxy-1H-quinolin-2-one QAB 149
Novartis Pharmaceuticals Corporation
Humans and other mammals
Indication of Indacaterol
For the long term, once-daily-dosing maintenance of airflow obstruction in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), including chronic bronchitis and/or emphysema.
Toxicity of Indacaterol
The expected signs and symptoms associated with overdosage of indacaterol are those of excessive beta-adrenergic stimulation and occurrence or exaggeration of any of the signs and symptoms, e.g., angina, hypertension or hypotension, tachycardia, with rates up to 200 bpm, arrhythmias, nervousness, headache, tremor, dry mouth, palpitation, muscle cramps, nausea, dizziness, fatigue, malaise, hypokalemia, hyperglycemia, metabolic acidosis and insomnia. As with all inhaled sympathomimetic medications, cardiac arrest and even death may be associated with an overdose of indacaterol.
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