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Price of Insulin Human
Novolin Ge Nph 100 unit/ml
* price without discount in nearest pharmacy. Price may vary.
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Insulin Human volume of distribution
What is Insulin Human
Insulin human is a 51 residue peptide hormone, composed of two amino acid chains covalently linked by disulfide bonds. The structure is identical to native human insulin. Recombinant insulin is synthesized by recombinant DNA techncology. Inserting the human insulin gene into the Escherichia coli bacteria or Saccharomyces cerevisiae produces insulin for human use.
Inhalable insulin is a powdered form of insulin regular, delivered with a nebulizer into the lungs where it is absorbed. Exubera, developed by Inhale Therapeutics (later named Nektar Therapeutics), became the first inhaled insulin product to be marketed in 2006 by Pfizer, but poor sales led Pfizer to withdraw it in 2007. Afrezza, a monomeric inhaled insulin developed by Mannkind, was approved by the FDA in 2014.
Insulin Human mechanism of action
The primary activity of insulin is the regulation of glucose metabolism. Insulin promotes glucose and amino acid uptake into muscle and adipose tissues, and other tissues except brain and liver. It also has an anabolic role in stimulating glycogen, fatty acid, and protein synthesis. Insulin inhibits gluconeogenesis in the liver.
Insulin binds to the insulin receptor (IR), a heterotetrameric protein consisting of two extracellular alpha units and two transmembrane beta units. The binding of insulin to the alpha subunit of IR stimulates the tyrosine kinase activity intrinsic to the beta subunit of the receptor. The bound receptor is able to autophosphorylate and phosphorylate numerous intracellular substrates such as insulin receptor substrates (IRS) proteins, Cbl, APS, Shc and Gab 1. These activated proteins, in turn, lead to the activation of downstream signaling molecules including PI3 kinase and Akt. Akt regulates the activity of glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) and protein kinase C (PKC) which play a critical role in metabolism and catabolism.
Dosage forms of Insulin Human
|Subcutaneous use||100 iu/ml|
|Subcutaneous use||40 iu/ml|
|Solution for injection||Subcutaneous or intravenous
human insulin (rDNA)
Sanofi Aventis U.S. Llc
Humans and other mammals
Indication of Insulin Human
Indicated as an adjunct to diet and exercise to improve glycemic control in adults and children with type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus.
Toxicity of Insulin Human
Hypoglycemia is one of the most frequent adverse events experienced by insulin users.
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