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Price of Insulin Lispro
Humalog 100 unit/ml
* price without discount in nearest pharmacy. Price may vary.
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Insulin Lispro volume of distribution
When administered intravenously as bolus injections of 0.1 and 0.2 U/kg dose in two separate groups of healthy subjects, the mean volume of distribution of insulin lispro appeared to decrease with increase in dose (1.55 and 0.72 L/kg, respectively).
What is Insulin Lispro
Insulin lispro is a recombinant human insulin analogue produced in a specialized laboratory strain of Escherischia coli. Plasmid DNA transfected into the bacteria encodes for an analogue of human insulin that has a lysine at residuce B28 and proline at B29; these residues are reversed in endogenous human insulin. Reversal of these amino acid residues produces a rapid-acting insulin analogue. FDA approved on 1996.
Insulin Lispro mechanism of action
Insulin lispro binds to the insulin receptor (IR), a heterotetrameric protein consisting of two extracellular alpha units and two transmembrane beta units. The binding of insulin to the alpha subunit of IR stimulates the tyrosine kinase activity intrinsic to the beta subunit of the receptor. The bound receptor autophosphorylates and phosphorylates numerous intracellular substrates such as insulin receptor substrates (IRS) proteins, Cbl, APS, Shc and Gab 1. Activation of these proteins leads to the activation of downstream signaling molecules including PI3 kinase and Akt. Akt regulates the activity of glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) and protein kinase C (PKC), both of which play critical roles in metabolism and catabolism. In humans, insulin is stored in the form of hexamers; however, only insulin monomers are able to interact with IR. Reversal of the proline and lysine residues at positions B28 and B29 of native insulin eliminates hydrophobic interactions and weakens some of the hydrogen bonds that contribute to the stability of the insulin dimers that comprise insulin hexamers. Hexamers of insulin lispro are produced in the presence of zinc and im/i-cresol. These weakly associated hexamers quickly dissociate upon subcutaneous injection and are absorbed as monomers through vascular endothelial cells. These properties give insulin lispro its fast-acting properties.
Dosage forms of Insulin Lispro
|Solution for injection||Subcutaneous or intravenous use||100 U/ml|
|Solution||intramuscular; intravenous; subcutaneous||100 unit|
Insulin lispro protamine recombinant
Insulin Lispro Recombinant
Eli Lilly Canada Inc
Humans and other mammals
Indication of Insulin Lispro
For the treatment of Type 1 or 2 diabetes mellitus. To be used in conjunction with an intermediate or long-acting insulin except when used in a continuous insulin infusion pump.
Toxicity of Insulin Lispro
Inappropriately high dosages relative to food intake and/or energy expenditure may result in severe and sometimes prolonged and life-threatening hypoglycemia. Neurogenic (autonomic) signs and symptoms of hypoglycemia include trembling, palpitations, sweating, anxiety, hunger, nausea and tingling. Neuroglycopenic signs and symptoms of hypoglycemia include difficulty concentrating, lethargy/weakness, confusion, drowsiness, vision changes, difficulty speaking, headache, and dizziness. Mild hypoglycemia is characterized by the presence of autonomic symptoms. Moderate hypoglycemia is characterized by the presence of autonomic and neuroglycopenic symptoms. Individuals may become unconscious in severe cases of hypoglycemia. Rare cases of lipoatrophy or lipohypertrophy reactions have been observed.
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