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Price of Metformin
Glucophage xr 500 mg tablet sa
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Metformin volume of distribution
654 L for metformin 850 mg administered as a single dose. The volume of distribution following IV administration is 63-276 L, likely due to less binding in the GI tract and/or different methods used to determine volume of distribution.
What is Metformin
Metformin is a biguanide antihyperglycemic agent used for treating non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). It improves glycemic control by decreasing hepatic glucose production, decreasing glucose absorption and increasing insulin-mediated glucose uptake. Metformin may induce weight loss and is the drug of choice for obese NIDDM patients. Use of metformin is associated with modest weight loss. When used alone, metformin does not cause hypoglycemia; however, it may potentiate the hypoglycemic effects of sulfonylureas and insulin. Its main side effects are dyspepsia, nausea and diarrhea. Dose titration and/or use of smaller divided doses may decrease side effects. Metformin should be avoided in those with severely compromised renal function (creatinine clearance 30 ml/min), acute/decompensated heart failure, severe liver disease and for 48 hours after the use of iodinated contrast dyes due to the risk of lactic acidosis. Lower doses should be used in the elderly and those with decreased renal function. Metformin decreases fasting plasma glucose, postprandial blood glucose and glycosolated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels, which are reflective of the last 8-10 weeks of glucose control. Metformin may also have a positive effect on lipid levels. In 2012, a combination tablet of linagliptin plus metformin hydrochloride was marketed under the name Jentadueto for use in patients when treatment with both linagliptin and metformin is appropriate.
Metformin mechanism of action
Metformin’s mechanisms of action differ from other classes of oral antihyperglycemic agents. Metformin decreases blood glucose levels by decreasing hepatic glucose production, decreasing intestinal absorption of glucose, and improving insulin sensitivity by increasing peripheral glucose uptake and utilization. These effects are mediated by the initial activation by metformin of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a liver enzyme that plays an important role in insulin signaling, whole body energy balance, and the metabolism of glucose and fats. Activation of AMPK is required for metformin’s inhibitory effect on the production of glucose by liver cells. Increased peripheral utilization of glucose may be due to improved insulin binding to insulin receptors. Metformin administration also increases AMPK activity in skeletal muscle. AMPK is known to cause GLUT4 deployment to the plasma membrane, resulting in insulin-independent glucose uptake. The rare side effect, lactic acidosis, is thought to be caused by decreased liver uptake of serum lactate, one of the substrates of gluconeogenesis. In those with healthy renal function, the slight excess is simply cleared. However, those with severe renal impairment may accumulate clinically significant serum lactic acid levels. Other conditions that may precipitate lactic acidosis include severe hepatic disease and acute/decompensated heart failure.
Dosage forms of Metformin
|Tablet, extended release||oral||1000 mg/1|
Actavis Pharma Company
Humans and other mammals
Indication of Metformin
For use as an adjunct to diet and exercise in adult patients (18 years and older) with NIDDM. May also be used for the management of metabolic and reproductive abnormalities associated with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Jentadueto is for the treatment of patients when both linagliptin and metformin is appropriate.
Toxicity of Metformin
Acute oral toxicity (LD sub 50 /sub ): 350 mg/kg (Rabbit). It would be expected that adverse reactions of a more intense character including epigastric discomfort, nausea, and vomiting followed by diarrhea, drowsiness, weakness, dizziness, malaise and headache might be seen.
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