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Methyclothiazide volume of distribution
What is Methyclothiazide
A thiazide diuretic with properties similar to those of hydrochlorothiazide. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p825)
Methyclothiazide mechanism of action
Methyclothiazide appears to block the active reabsorption of chloride and possibly sodium in the ascending loop of Henle, altering electrolyte transfer in the proximal tubule. This results in excretion of sodium, chloride, and water and, hence, diuresis. As a diuretic, methyclothiazide inhibits active chloride reabsorption at the early distal tubule via the Na-Cl cotransporter, resulting in an increase in the excretion of sodium, chloride, and water. Thiazides like methyclothiazide also inhibit sodium ion transport across the renal tubular epithelium through binding to the thiazide sensitive sodium-chloride transporter. This results in an increase in potassium excretion via the sodium-potassium exchange mechanism. The antihypertensive mechanism of methyclothiazide is less well understood although it may be mediated through its action on carbonic anhydrases in the smooth muscle or through its action on the large-conductance calcium-activated potassium (KCa) channel, also found in the smooth muscle.
Dosage forms of Methyclothiazide
Abbott Laboratories, Limited
Humans and other mammals
Indication of Methyclothiazide
For use in the management of hypertension either as the sole therapeutic agent or to enhance the effect of other antihypertensive drugs in the more severe forms of hypertension. Also used as adjunctive therapy in edema associated with congestive heart failure, hepatic cirrhosis, and corticosteroid and estrogen therapy.
Toxicity of Methyclothiazide
Acute oral toxicity (LD sub 50 /sub ): 4000 mg/kg (Rat). Symptoms of overdosage include electrolyte imbalance and signs of potassium deficiency such as confusion, dizziness, muscular weakness, and gastrointestinal disturbances.
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