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Price of Phenylephrine
Mydfrin 2.5 % Solution
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Phenylephrine volume of distribution
What is Phenylephrine
Phenylephrine is a sympathomimetic amine that acts predominantly on alpha;-adrenergic receptors. It is mainly used to treat nasal congestion, but may also be useful in treating hypotension and shock, hypotension during spinal anaesthesia, prolongation of spinal anaesthesia, paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia, symptomatic relief of external or internal hemorrhoids, and to increase blood pressure as an aid in the diagnosis of heart murmurs.
Phenylephrine mechanism of action
In general, alpha; sub 1 /sub -adrenergic receptors mediate contraction and hypertrophic growth of smooth muscle cells. alpha; sub 1 /sub -receptors are 7-transmembrane domain receptors coupled to G proteins, G sub q/11 /sub . Three alpha; sub 1 /sub -receptor subtypes, which share approximately 75% homology in their transmembrane domains, have been identified: alpha; sub 1A /sub (chromosome 8), alpha; sub 1B /sub (chromosome 5), and alpha; sub 1D /sub (chromosome 20). Phenylephrine appears to act similarly on all three receptor subtypes. All three receptor subtypes appear to be involved in maintaining vascular tone. The alpha; sub 1A /sub -receptor maintains basal vascular tone while the alpha; sub 1B /sub -receptor mediates the vasocontrictory effects of exogenous alpha; sub 1 /sub -agonists. Activation of the alpha; sub 1 /sub -receptor activates G sub q /sub -proteins, which results in intracellular stimulation of phospholipases C, A sub 2 /sub , and D. This results in mobilization of Ca sup 2+ /sup from intracellular stores, activation of mitogen-activated kinase and PI sub 3 /sub kinase pathways and subsequent vasoconstriction. Phenylephrine produces its local and systemic actions by acting on alpha; sub 1 /sub -adrenergic receptors peripheral vascular smooth muscle. Stimulation of the alpha; sub 1 /sub -adrenergic receptors results in contraction arteriolar smooth muscle in the periphery. Phenylephrine decreases nasal congestion by acting on alpha; sub 1 /sub -adrenergic receptors in the arterioles of the nasal mucosa to produce constriction; this leads to decreased edema and increased drainage of the sinus cavities.
Dosage forms of Phenylephrine
4 Way Fast Acting
Novartis Consumer Health, Inc.
Humans and other mammals
Indication of Phenylephrine
Phenylephrine is mainly used to treat nasal congestion, but may also be useful in treating hypotension and shock, hypotension during spinal anaesthesia, prolongation of spinal anaesthesia, paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia, symptomatic relief of external or internal hemorrhoids, and to increase blood pressure as an aid in the diagnosis of heart murmurs.
Toxicity of Phenylephrine
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