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2018 Price of Tofacitinib
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Tofacitinib volume of distribution
Vd= 87L after intravenous administration. Distribution is equal between red blood cells and plasma.
Discount Cards 16,000+
Clients Benefit 29%
Total savings $4,735,080
What is Tofacitinib
Tofacitinib is an inhibitor of Janus kinases, a group of intracellular enzymes involved in signalling pathways that affect hematopoiesis and immune cell function. It is approved by the FDA for treatment of moderate to severe rheumatoid arthritis that responds inadequately to methotrexate or in those who are intolerant to methotrexate. Besides rheumatoid arthritis, tofacitinib has also been studied in clinical trials for the prevention of organ transplant rejection, and is currently under investigation for the treatment of psoriasis. Known adverse effects include nausea and headache as well as more serious immunologic and hematological adverse effects. Tofacitinib is marketed under the brand name Xeljanz by Pfizer.
Tofacitinib mechanism of action
Rheumatoid arthritis is an autoimmune disease characterized by a dysregulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines including IL7, IL15, IL21, IL6, IFN-alpha, and IFN-beta. (3) Cytokines signalling results in tissue inflammation and joint damage by stimulating the recruitment and activation of immune cells via the janus kinase signalling pathway. Tofacitinib is a partial and reversible janus kinase (JAK) inihibitor that will prevent the body from responding to cytokine signals. By inhibiting JAKs, tofacitinib prevents the phosphorylation and activation of STATs. The JAK-STAT signalling pathway is involved in the transcription of cells involved in hematopoiesis, and immune cell function. Tofacitinib works therapeutically by inhibiting the JAK-STAT pathway to decrease the inflammatory response. However, there is evidence to suggest that it may also achieve efficacy via other pathways as well.
Dosage forms of Tofacitinib
|Tablet, film coated||oral||5 mg/1|
|Tablet, film coated, extended release||oral||11 mg/1|
Humans and other mammals
Indication of Tofacitinib
For the treatment of moderate to severe rheumatoid arthritis which is resistant or intolerant to methotrexate therapy. It may also be used as an adjunct to methotrexate therapy, or other non-biologic disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDS), when methotrexate alone is not sufficient. Tofacitinib has also been investigated as a preventative therapy for kidney transplant rejections, and as a treatment for psoriasis, ulcerative colitis, and ankylosing spondylitis. It is not to be initiated in patients with a history of chronic or recurrent infections, or in the presence of active infection, even if localized, due to reports of serious and sometimes fatal infections (commonly pneumonia, herpes zoster and urinary tract infections). Use of tofacitinib is also discouraged in those who have been, or are likely to be, exposed to TB. An increased likelihood of exposure may be encountered by traveling to certain areas. In addition, tofacitinib is not to be used in patients with severe hepatic impairment, or low hemoglobin (less than 9g/dL). Cautioned is advised when using tofacitinib in patients at risk of gastrointestinal perforation, and in the elderly who are more susceptible to infection.
Toxicity of Tofacitinib
Minimum lethal dose in rat: 500 mg/kg. Maximum asymptomatic dose in non human primate: 40 mg/kg. Lymphatic, immune system, bone marrow and erythroid cell toxicity was seen in animal studies involving rate and monkeys. Doses used in these studies ranged from 1mg/kg/day to 10mg/kg/day, over a duration of 6 weeks to 6 months. Lymphopenia, neutropenia, and anemia is seen in human subjects and may call for an interruption or discontinuation of therapy if severe. Reduced female fertility in rats was seen at exposures 17 times the maximum recommended human dose. Fertility may be impaired in human females and harm may be caused to unborn child. Carcinogenic potential is seen, however evidence for dose dependency is lacking. Because the janus kinase pathway plays a role in stimulating the production of red blood cells and is involved in immune cell function, inhibition of this pathway leads to increased risk of anemia, neutropenia, lymphopenia, cancer and infection. Lymphopenia, neutropenia, and anemia in human subjects may call for an interruption or discontinuation of therapy if severe. Role of JAK inhibition in the development of gastrointestinal perforation is not known.
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