Antibiotics are substances that can suppress the growth of microorganisms or destroy them. These include substances of plant, animal or microbial origin. At present, this definition is somewhat outdated, since a huge number of synthetic drugs have been created, but natural antibiotics served the prototype for their creation.
On the mechanism of action they are:
bactericidal – means the death of pathogenic microorganisms (polymyxin, cephalexin, gentamicin, streptomycin, penicillins);
bacteriostatic – there is a slowdown in the growth of microorganisms (lincomycin, levomycetin, erythromycin, macrolides, tetracyclines).
Also, antibiotics are classified into drugs with a wide and narrow spectrum of action. Medicines of a wide spectrum of action are rather effective at a different infection. They have a disastrous effect on virtually all types of pathogens, and also affect a healthy microflora. That is why, without the need, it is better to use narrow-spectrum drugs that cause minimal harm to the body.
All antibiotics differ among themselves not only by pharmacological features but also by the form of release and the method of administration. So treatment with antibiotics can be carried out parenterally, orally or rectally. For oral administration, drops, suspensions, syrups, capsules, tablets, inhalants will work. But it should be borne in mind that an irritating effect on the intestine may accompany such a method. Also, antibacterial medications can be injected intravenously, in the form of injections, into the spinal canal. The effect, in this case, is achieved more quickly.
In pharmacies, antibiotics for external use in the form of ointment, aerosol, spray for the elimination of local purulent process are also widely represented.