Antiseptic called antimicrobial agents that delay the development of microorganisms, and disinfectants – substances that kill microbes. Accordingly, the bacteriostatic effect is distinguished when the development of micro-organisms stops, and the bactericidal action when the microorganisms completely die.
Between antiseptic and disinfectants, as well as bacteriostatic and bactericidal effects, there is no fundamental difference, since any antimicrobial agent, depending on the conditions of its application, in some cases may cause a delay in the development of microorganisms, and in others – its death. A large number of different antiseptics can be systematized in many ways. By methods of use, there are agents for antiseptic action on the skin, mucous membranes of the gastrointestinal tract, respiratory, urinary tract.
According to the chemical structure, antiseptics are distributed according to the classes of chemical compounds to which they belong, which reflects the mechanism of their action. This group of halides (antiformin, iodoform, iodinol), oxidizers (hydrogen peroxide, potassium permanganate), acids (salicylic, benzoic, boric), alkalis (ammonia), aldehydes (formalin, lysoform), alcohols (ethyl), salts of heavy metals (preparations of mercury, silver, copper, zinc, lead), phenols (carbolic acid, lysol, resorcinol), dyes (methylene blue, brilliant green), soaps (green), tar, tar, oil refining products (ASD, ihtiol, oil naphthalan, ozokerite), phytoncide and other herbal antibacterial preparations atyza (ursaline, tincture of calendula, imanin).