Myasthenia gravis is characterized by episodes of muscle weakness and rapid fatigue, which is based on the destruction of acetylcholine receptors by factors of humoral and cellular immunity. The load on the muscles aggravates symptoms and decrease at rest.
The diagnosis is established by the definition of antibodies to acetylcholine receptors in the serum, electroneuromyography and, in some cases, by a sample with intravenous administration of edrophonium, which shortens the weakness for a short time. Treatment includes anticholinesterase drugs, immunosuppressants, corticosteroids, plasmapheresis, intravenous immunoglobulin and, in some cases, thymectomy.
The myasthenic crisis is a severely generalized tetraparesis or a life-threatening weakness of the respiratory muscles, which at least once develops in about 15-20% of patients. It is often associated with an infection that activates the immune system. After the appearance of initial signs of respiratory failure, severe respiratory failure can occur very quickly.
The cholinergic crisis is a muscle weakness that develops as a result of an overdose of anticholinesterase drugs (e.g., neostigmine, pyridostigmine). A mild cry is difficult to distinguish from a worsening of myasthenia flow. The severe cholinergic crisis is easily diagnosed because unlike myasthenia; it is characterized by increased lachrymation and salivation, tachycardia and diarrhea.
The choice of drugs for myasthenia gravis depends on the degree of damage to muscle tissue and the magnitude of the violation of synaptic conductivity. The change in ion exchange, associated with a lack of potassium, also requires a special approach to the selection of medications for therapy.